Livable cities require energy, typically imported from outside the local city environment. Primary energy sources, such as petroleum-based fuels and natural gas, are widely used for transportation and heating, respectively. Electricity as a secondary energy source is important for supporting current residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial buildings, as well as the expanding electrification of transportation. This thrust area will:
(i) Analyze pipeline, rail, truck, electricity grid, and other infrastructure for the energy sector as related to interconnected demands from other thrusts;
(ii) Simulate adapting energy generation portfolios from distributed renewable sources and dynamic demand patterns, especially in response to global climate change, electrification of transportation, and hazard-induced failure.